White wine with fish, red wine with meat

It’s the commonly accepted ‘law’ for matching wine and food, and it embodies a lot of common sense: the subtle flavour of plainly grilled fish would be over-powered by the tannins in a strong red wine, whereas would be difficult to appreciate the nuances of a delicate white wine against the flavours of a charry steak.

The reason we worry so much about choosing a wine to go with a particular meal is that without doubt the right food/wine combination can double the enjoyment of both. There are few wines that don’t taste better when drunk with food, and even the most delicious dish can be enhanced by just the right wine.

The problem is that the simple ‘white-with-fish, red-with-meat’ law doesn’t take account of many other factors such as different styles of cooking, flavoursome sauces and accompaniments, or the spicy influence of ethnic cuisine. More importantly, of course, it doesn’t take account of personal tastes and preferences.


The only sensible ‘rule’ is to decide for yourself what suits your tastes; it might not be conventional, but your own, personal taste is far more important than convention. As we gain experience and learn more about wine, we think of it not just in terms of flavour, but also in other terms such as weight, power, aroma and length. One of the keys to choosing a wine to suit a particular dish is to take a moment to consider these qualities in relation to the food and then try to find a style of wine that will match – or contrast.

For example, imagine a fillet of poached salmon with a rich, buttery sauce. The flesh of salmon is firmer, heavier and richer than some other fish and the sauce is rich and creamy. We could choose a full-bodied, big, buttery, oaked chardonnay to match the weight and character of the dish, or we could choose a tart, fresh sauvignon blanc to contrast and cut through the heavy sauce. This all comes down to personal preferences, but either combination would probably work well. Alternatively,  although it’s hard to imagine the flavours of this dish being helped by the tannins of a firm red wine, would the light body and fresh, fruity flavours of a young, delicate Beaujolais prove quite acceptable?

Guidelines – conventional combinations

Fish – (plain grilled or fried) dry or medium whites which shouldn’t overwhelm the fish and should help to cleanse the palate between mouthfuls.

Shellfish – crisp, dry white like Chablis, dry riesling, sauvignon blanc or Champagne.

Poultry – pinot noir and mature cabernet sauvignon are delicious with roast chicken or turkey. If choosing a white, try something medium bodied and tasty like a vouvray, chardonnay or medium-dry German wine. The richness of duck needs a rich wine (red or white) with full favour.

Game & red meat – the classic combination is with full, mature, red wines of high quality – Burgundy, Bordeaux, Châteauneuf-du-Pape or a new-world equivalent.

Lamb – a fairly firm, robust red with some acidity, like Chianti, Rioja or zinfandel.

Chinese food – tea, or spicy whites such as gewurztraminer or off-dry riesling.

Indian or other spicy food – water, beer, or try off-dry whites or big, spicy reds.

Cheese – there are many good cheese and wine matches – mature cheddar and mature red wine, port with stilton, goats’ cheese with sauvignon blanc, sweet wine with blue cheeses are all classic pairings. Avoid reds that are very tannic and whites that are heavily oaked.

Dessert – sweet wines can be perfect partners, but try ensure the wine is sweeter than the dessert. Chocolate or rich Christmas-pudding style dishes can work really well with darker, perhaps fortified sweet wines.

Watch out for sauces and dressings that can make nonsense of these guidelines: if wine has been used to cook the dish, it is often an excellent solution to drink the same, or similar wine along with it.

Another tip is to drink a wine from the same region as the food: red Burgundy with boeuf bourguignon or Italian red with pasta dishes, are examples of very sympathetic local wine and food combinations.

Some foods are regarded as “problem” foods for wine matching: eggs, tomatoes, vinegar, salad dressings and lemon are some examples that spring to mind, but again it’s all down to personal taste.

If forced to choose just one wine to match with a variety of different dishes, a rosé might fit the bill nicely. Otherwise, a medium bodied, medium dry white is probably the safest choice.


Being faced with choosing the wine in an upmarket restaurant can be a daunting business. With the wine waiter (‘sommelier’ in French) hovering above you, pages of unknown wines in front of you, and a variety of dishes ordered by your party, the task can seem impossibly difficult.

Making sense of the wine list

A good wine list needn’t be long or expensive, but it should be specific about the wines featured. If the list is vague, don’t be afraid to ask to see the bottle. The list below would make me rather suspicious:

bad-wine-listChablis – this is a huge area, with 3 different quality levels, hundreds of producers, and great differences between vintages: there isn’t enough information here.x

Meursault 2016 – better, but who is the producer? What quality level is it?

Riesling 2018  – Is it bone-dry or fully sweet? Who knows?

Blue Nun 2019 – at least you know what you’re getting!

Margaux 2015 – Margaux is the name of a famous Château producing one of the world’s greatest and most expensive wines. But it is also the name for a large area with dozens of different producers, some of them very ordinary. Could this be a deliberate attempt to mislead?

Château Latour, Pauillac, 1990/91 – we have all the details we need to confirm this is the great Château Latour, but beware, 1990 was one of the best vintages of the century whereas 1991 was virtually rained out and was poor: the 1991 is worth half the price of the 1990.

A good wine list should always be specific about a wines’ quality, producer and vintage. It should also have a decent selection of wines by the glass.

The tasting ritual
The restaurants should show you the bottle before opening it. Check the label to make sure you are getting the wine, producer and vintage that you order. It is a common mistake to think the waiter lets you taste the wine just to see whether or not you like it. In fact, you are checking to make sure the wine is in good condition and not ‘corked’. This is a very commonly mis-understood term: a wine is corked if the cork has become diseased and has tainted the wine, giving it a mouldy, dirty smell. Small pieces of cork floating in the wine is a sign that it has been opened and poured carelessly, but this shouldn’t affect the taste. If you have any doubts, ask one of your party for a second opinion and if you are still unhappy, do not be afraid to reject the wine and ask for another bottle, or something totally different.

Mark-ups on wine in Restaurants
It is common for restaurants to triple the retail cost of a bottle when they list it. Though many people object to this, the turth is that most restaurants make a slim profit on food and rely on drink sales, so the big mark-up is unfortunately common. The good news is that the mark-up often diminishes on the more expensive wines, so these can be relative bargains. The cheapest ‘house wine’ is often a test of a good restaurant – it should be tasty and enjoyable.

Go to Wine Course Part VI – Buying, serving and storing wine | Back to Part IV